An Examination of likeability Criteria in Evaluative Image of Women in Cities (Case Study: Tehran City)

Main Article Content

Azin Hajiahmadi Hamedani


The image evaluation of environment is not just the result of impressions made by its external attributes on the mind of the observer. It is, however, created by the imagination of the observer. On one hand, the city is lodged by a wide variety of people whose evaluation of its images they form in their mind is critical. The desirability of the urban environments for various social strata, especially for women, depends on the relationship between human beings and the environment as well as their priorities and preferences. The aim of this study is to achieve women's image of urban environment and how to evaluate and identify priorities to select the desired location due to differences in values, emotions, experiences and inferential meanings of public space in Tehran.

The research method is based on techniques developed by Jack L. Nasar  in his research on the Evaluative image of  the city(1990) at the first step. Then, a phenomenological hermeneutic approach oriented to describe the connotations and emotions image representation of women in the experience of urban spaces desirable / undesirable and nature of development of the city of Tehran. For this purpose, 15 women in-depth interviews were targeted for sampling. Recent interviews description of what the five locations stated desirable and undesirable fifth place. Interviews were recorded and the data obtained from it written in the form of tables were analyzed. The results indicate that the optimal site selection of the women’s evaluative image, with a focus on likability, the common meanings associated with the concepts of freedom, justice, respect of (dignity) Location, beauty, with socio-cultural prestige and class, stylish and full of detail being quiet and cozy, with privacy and space while having the breadth of the definition, being more likely to have a happy mood and health.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hajiahmadi Hamedani, A. (2020). An Examination of likeability Criteria in Evaluative Image of Women in Cities (Case Study: Tehran City). International Journal of Applied Arts Studies (IJAPAS), 4(2), 49-70. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Azin Hajiahmadi Hamedani, Young Researchers Club, Robatkarim Branch, Islamic Azad University, RobatKarim, Iran.

Lecturer of - Department of  Urbanism, Robat Karim branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


1) Appleyard, D. (1976). Planning a pluralist city: Conflicting realities in Ciudad Guayana. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

2) Archer, J. (1996). Sex differences in social behavior: Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible? American Psychologist, 51, 909–917.

3) Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3(3), 203-220.

4) Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106, 676–713.

5) Cherulnik, P. D., & Wilderman, S. K. (1986). Symbols of status in urban neighborhoods: Contemporary perceptions of nineteenth-century Boston. Environment and Behavior, 18(5), 604-622.

6) Day, K. (2011). 11 Feminist Approaches to Urban Design. Companion to Urban Design.

7) Downs, R. M. (1976). Personal constructions of personal construct theory. Environmental Knowing: Theories, Research, and Methods. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchison & Ross.

8) Duncan Jr, J. S. (1973). Landscape taste as a symbol of group identity: A Westchester County village. Geographical Review, 334-355.

9) Eisler, A. D., Wester, M., Yoshida, M., & Bianchi, G. (1999). Attitudes, beliefs, and opinions about suicide: A cross-cultural comparison of Sweden, Japan, and Slovakia. In Latest contribution to cross-cultural psychology (pp. 176–191).Amsterdam: Swets &Zeitlinger.

10) Eisler, A. D., Eisler, H., & Yoshida, M. (2003). Perception of human ecology: cross-cultural and gender comparisons. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 89-101.

11) Harrison, J. A., & Sarre, P. (1975). Personal construct theory in the measurement of environmental images. Environment and Behavior, 7(1), 3.

12) Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City, Cambridge :MIT Press.

13) Lynch, K. (1993). The image of the city. Trans. Manouchehr Muzani. Tehran: The University of Tehran Publication, 17.

14) Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

15) Milgram, S., Jodelet, D., PROSHANSKY, H., ITTELSON, W., & RIVLIN, L. (1976). Environmental psychology: people and their physical settings. Environmental psychology: people and their physical settings.

16) Moller, L. C., & Serbin, L. A. (1996). Antecedents of toddler gender segregation-cognitive consonance, gender-typed toy preferences and behavioral compatibility. Sex roles,35, 445–460.

17) Nasar, J. L., & Farokhpay, M. (1985). Assessment of activity priorities and design preferences of elderly residents in public housing: A case study. The Gerontologist, 25(3), 251-257.

18) Nasar, J. L. (1989b). Symbolic meanings of house styles. Environment and behavior, 21(3), 235-257.

19) Nasar, J. L., & Kang, J. (1989). A Post-Jury Evaluation The Ohio State University Design Competition for a Center for the Visual Arts. Environment and Behavior, 21(4), 464-484

20) . Nasar, J. L. (1990). The evaluative image of the city. Journal of the American Planning Association, 56(1), 41-53.

21) Nasar, J. L., & Jones, K. M. (1997). Landscapes of fear and stress. Environment and behavior, 29(3), 291-323.

22) Nasar, J. L. (1998). The evaluative image of the city. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

23) Nasar, J. L. (2008). Assessing perceptions of environments for active living. American journal of preventive medicine, 34(4), 357-363.

24) Nasar, J. L., Banarjee, T., & Loukaitou, A. (2011). Environmental psychology and urban design. Companion to urban design. Routledge, New York, 162-171.

25) Nasar, J. L. (2013) The Evalouative Image of The City.Trans Masoud Asadi Mahalchali. Tehran, Armanshahr.

26) Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space, New York: Macmillan.

27) Pakzad, J. & H. Bozorg. (2012). The ABC of environmental psychology for urban designers. Tehran: Armanshahr Publication. Vol. 1, 13-20.

28) Partovi, P. (2008). Phenomenology of place. Tehran: The Iranian academy of art.

29) Perkins, D. D., Meeks, J. W., & Taylor, R. B. (1992). The physical environment of street blocks and resident perceptions of crime and disorder: Implications for theory and measurement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12(1), 21-34.

30) Perkins, D. D., Wandersman, A., Rich, R. C., & Taylor, R. B. (1993). The physical environment of street crime: Defensible space, territoriality and incivilities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(1), 29-49.

31) Rapoport, A. (1970). Observations regarding man-environment studies. Man-Environment Systems, 1(70), 1-29.

32) Rakodi, C. (1991). Cities and people: Towards a gender‐aware urban planning process?. Public Administration and Development, 11(6), 541-559.

33) Rapoport, A. (1977). Human aspects of urban form (Vol. 3). Oxford: Pergamon.

34) Rapoport, A. (1993). Cross-cultural studies and urban form. University of Maryland at College Park, Urban Studies Program.

35) Russell, J.A., and Snodgrass, J. (1989). Emotion and Environment. In Stokols, D. and Altman, I. (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology (Vol. 1), New York: John Wiley.

36) Taylor, R. B., Shumaker, S. A., & Gottfredson, S. D. (1985). Neighborhood-level links between physical features and local sentiments: Deterioration, fear of crime, and confidence. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2(4), 261-275.

37) Taylor, R. B. (1987). Toward an environmental psychology of disorder: Delinquency, crime, and fear of crime. Handbook of environmental psychology, 2, 951-986.

38) Ward, L. M., & Russell, J. A. (1981). The psychological representation of molar physical environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110(2), 121.

39) Warr, M. (1990). Dangerous situations: Social context and fear of victimization. Social forces, 891-907.

40) Wong, K. K., & Domroes, M. (2005). The visual quality of urban park scenes of Kowloon Park, Hong Kong: likeability, affective appraisal, and cross-cultural perspectives. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 32(4), 617-632.